National Security and Strategic Studies
Cyber Security
Decoding Russia's 'Missing' Cyberwar Amid War in Ukraine

… impact of cyber operations is missing ... Russian cyber operations lean towards low-cost disruption efforts that rely on cyber patriots and criminal hackers than their ability to carry out sophisticated degradation campaigns. Cyber is an excellent tool for sub-conventional conflict, where one is trying to hit back at the other party without escalating to a kinetic conflict. Tactical objectives are not only about disrupting services, but also about intimidation, distraction and confusion ...

Protection of National Critical Information Infrastructure

India is in the next phase of digital transformation. The digital presence of economic and national security infrastructure is growing in the country at a rapid pace. All critical infrastructures are dependent and have integrated cyber technologies for management, control, and operations. Different types of software are in use. The critical systems are under various types of cyber-attacks. The complexity and numbers of attacks against critical information infrastructureare increasingand becoming sophisticated by the day.

Deterrence Theory– Is it Applicable in Cyber Domain?

… effective cyber deterrence policies require regular, sustained disruption of malicious cyber activity. Such disruption can be technical, legal, logistical, financial, diplomatic, and, in some extreme cases, kinetic. Increasing the scope, scale and tempo of disruption activities should impose high costs on adversaries …

Cyber Weapons – A Weapon of War?

… cyber weapons will be used individually and blended simultaneously with conventional kinetic weapons as force multipliers … for both attacker and defender, it is difficult to predict; cyber weapons often achieve things other than their intended purpose … strategic calculation for attackers thus becomes considerably more complex ... over-reliance by strategists and scholars on such imprecise terminology has significant risks for misinterpretation and premature prescription ...

China’s Cyber-Influence Operations

… With its growing assertiveness in the international arena, China uses new technologies to achieve its foreign policy goals and project an image of responsible global power … spending billions on influence operations across the world ... fits in with China’s larger aim of expanding its soft power alongside its growing economic and military power … reach of Beijing’s overseas media is impressive and should not be underestimated. But the results are mixed ...

Defining China’s Intelligentized Warfare and Role of Artificial Intelligence

China feels that U.S. is its main adversary ... China is trying to match U.S. technological capabilities with its own strength in AI as a leap frog technology and a new concept of war ... But there will be lot of problems in implementing this concept of Intelligentization Warfare to reality. However, President Xi Jinping has thrown the gauntlet, and it is up to the U.S. the other adversaries and the rest of the world to follow this concept keenly.

Cyber DNA of China –Deep, Focussed and Militarised

The strategic goals reconfirmed by the CCP, in late 1970’s, included maintaining domestic stability; sustaining economic growth and development; defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity; safeguarding China’s interest world over. The focus of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Five year Plans, was on investing in export industries, infrastructure, adaption and investment in technology development. China began opening its economy to the outside world and embraced market forces. Since then, China’s growth and development have been spectacular.

The Curious Case of Huawei

China’s journey from being an agrarian economy to one of the largest economies with a strong military and cyber capabilities is commendable. However, its military and cyber capabilities are built upon relentless efforts to steal critical military and technical information of other countries, mainly the United States (US). Leading Chinese companies, including one of the telecom giants—Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. (hereafter Huawei), are taking advantage of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) projects to access the competitive neighbourhood nations.

Vimarsh on India's Digital Leap by Shri Ram Sewak Sharma, Former Chairman of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

India’s economic growth is accelerating at a steady pace with a glimpse of its true potential to become the world’s fastest-growing economy soon. In 2019, India ranked as the second-largest online market, after China. According to data by Statista, in 2020, India had 700 million internet subscribers across the nation; as a projection, these numbers will grow to over 974 million internet users by 2025.

India's Strategies for Information War & Cyber Deterrence

The concept of Information Warfare (IW) is as old as warfare itself but has gained in significance in recent times where we look at non-contact battles between two adversaries. This concept involves the use of information and communication technologies; and taking it a little further, it transforms into the use of computers and cyberspace in warfare. This book delves into this complex topic and brings out issues and facets especially pertaining to India. It emphasises that issues of National Security and Nation Building in this information age are intertwined.

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