Question For Experts
Q. Several parts of India is reeling under water scarcity. This is a huge national security. How far have we been able to exploit the opportunities presented by the strategic partnership with Israel to find solutions for water conservation and water management?

Replied by Dr Uttam Sinha
India uses more water than any other country and about 65 percent of India's water demand comes from groundwater. Irrigation takes roughly 3/4th share, even more, of water and therefore water resources become critical for India's economic and social development. When the demand for water in the coming decade is projected to overtake its availability then it is a matter of national concern. India has partnerships/cooperation/MoUs with a number of countries on water resources development. Similarly with Israel. When Indian PM visited Israel in 2017, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation signed MoU with the corresponding ministry in Israel. Isra..

Q. Why doesn't India raise China's repression in Xinjiang, Taiwan, Tibet Occupation or Hong Kong democracy movement? China uses UN platform, media and government officials to criticize Indian government's "atrocities and illegal occupation of J&K". India follows the doctrine of non-interference in domestic matters of other nations, but why does China not reciprocate the same?

Replied by Dr Teshu Singh
India doesn’t raise the issue of Xinjiang, Taiwan, Tibet and Hong Kong because the government of India follows the “One China Policy”. It implies that countries that have diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China should acknowledge the existence of one only country called China. It is essentially related to the Taiwan/ Republic of China. Support for this policy is a precondition for any country to establish diplomatic relations with China. China has been quite successful in this policy. In the last four years, China has enticed eight countries (Kiribati, Solomon Islands, El Salvador, Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, Panama, Gambia..

Q. Can you please explain about the OBOR one belt one road) and the CPEC project?

Replied by Dr Teshu Singh
The One Belt One Road (OBOR) entails two initiatives namely the ‘Silk Road Economic Belt’ and the ‘Maritime Silk Road’ together form the OBOR. During his trip to Kazakhstan, Chinese President Xi Jinping made a speech on 7 September 2013 in which he proposed to build a “Silk Road Economic Belt” and projected it as a grand project that would benefit countries along the route. Similarly, at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Bali on 2 October 2013, he proposed the revival of the “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR). The OBOR is the signature project of Xi Jinping. The twin objective of the OBOR is to improve the connectivity ..

Q. Given the transition of technologies in conducting warfare, how us coping with the changing times and promoting the private and public sector to enhance our capabilities? What are the new innovations taking place in this sector?

Replied by Naval Jagota
In order to invent systems for future wars there needs to be an articulation of the future wars by the users as well as policy makers. These articulations are based upon the present technological and manufacturing development capabilities as well as potential of the industry in that country or in a group of countries. The technologies invented and then developed are founded on either specific adversarial military hardware or generically on capabilities and capacities which are required to be addressedto cater to multiple larger threats. Each invention and subsequent commercial development requires robustness as well as good supply side eco system. The ..

Q. How will the World be Dealing with China in a Post-Pandemic World?

Replied by Prerna Gandhi
This is one of the most pressing International Relations questions today. But before we can reach a post-pandemic world, there is going to be an interim period that will be equally important. China’s role in the global economy has expanded in the last two decades which have conferred it a larger strategic heft. The underlying rationale of supply side strengths, plentiful forex reserves, increasing technological expertise and continuous military modernization make it a power to reckon with. However, the question of unprovoked Chinese military aggression on multiple fronts during an ongoing pandemic has raised serious doubts on the ability of China to pla..

Q. China is proceeding with a concrete plan to develop their indigenous Operating System which is aimed to be used in all government offices. They have devised a plan called "5 2 3 plan" . What is the opinion of VIF on this and the road map planned by India on this aspect. Also, DRDO based labs like ANURAG, CAIR and C DAC could be used for developing a OS. Kindly provide your views on the roadmap / strategy that India should follow to ensure cyber security through Make in India.

Replied by Brig Rahul Bhonsle
Reports of the Chinese Communist party’s Central Office having issued a directive for replacing all hardware and software in government offices with indigenously developed substitutes emerged in December last year. [Please refer to Financial Times link https://www.ft.com/content/b55fc6ee-1787-11ea-8d73-6303645ac406]. The directive has been nicknamed 3-5-2 [Not 5 – 2 – 3 as you have indicated unless you are referring to some different issue]. The nickname arises from the directive which gives targets for replacement as 30% of foreign hardware and software in 2020, 50% in 2021 and 20% in 2022. This is in conformity with the country’s Cyb..

Q. PLA ( People Liberation Army ),Valley Based Insurgent Group of Manipur is one of the potent insurgent group. How is this PLA insurgent group related directly to PLA ( People Liberation Army ) of China ? In case of India's Conflict / hostility with China, will China use PLA insurgent group to create disturbance in North Eastern states especially Manipur and with Maoist / Naxalite in the mainland India ?

Replied by Col Jaideep Chanda
Relation between PLA China and PLA Manipur
People's Liberation Army (PLA) of Manipur, was founded on 25 September 1978, under the leadership of N. Bisheshwar. The PLA (Manipur) was named by the founder as suggested by their initial mentors, the PLA of China. The pioneer group (referred to as the Ojhas) of the PLA (Manipur) had attended indoctrination and training in China for two years before returning to India and starting the insurgency. The group was intrinsically Leftist and had strong links with the Naxal movement. In a conflict like situation, use of all means available to the adversary has to be factored into our planning. H..

Q. What are major threats to China's economy and their potential impact on China's political stability?

Replied by Dr Teshu Singh
In January 2018, Liu He (Vice Premier of China) while speaking at the World Economic Forum had mentioned about the ‘Three Critical Battles’. They are; preventing and resolving the major risks, conducting targeted poverty reduction and controlling pollution. The other threats to the Chinese economy are a middle-income trap, declining demographic dividend, US-China trade dispute and reshaping the Chinese economy post-COVID-19. China is the second-largest economy, the largest exporter and has the largest foreign exchange reserves in the world. In 2019, the economic growth of China has gone down, it was 6.1 per cent against 6.8 per cent in 2018. The C..

Q. India's shot at becoming a $5 trillion economy by 2024 cannot be met without becoming the manufacturing base for the World's consumption. What are the major steps by our Government along with various ministries in this direction?

Replied by Amb DP Srivastava
To expect fast economic growth, while world faces the risk of recession in the wake of Covid situation, is unrealistic. ‘The target of becoming a $ 5 trillion economy was announced before the world got caught up in Covid situation. This crisis is beyond the control of any country. This is likely to result in contraction of world economy. The Government has taken a number of steps to revive the economy while extending the lock-down. This includes fiscal package of 1.3 trillion rupees. This is expected to be enhanced further. RBI is simultaneously trying to give monetary stimulus by bringing down the interest rates. RBI and the Government are also en..

Will DRDO and HAL will be able to deliver a 5th generation fighter jet? i.e AMCA on time or our Indian Air Force will be forced to buy a foreign fighter.

Replied by Naval Jagota
The IAF is down to 30 fighter squadrons, against the assessed requirement of 42 squadrons. Air Chief Marshal Bhadauria’s plan, unveiled in an interaction with the media inOctober 2019, will only raise numbers to 37 squadrons by 2025, before falling again to 33 squadrons by 2032. The IAF has ordered 40 Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas Mark I aircraft [20 in Initial Operation Clearance (IOC) and 20 in Final Operation Clearance (FOC) version with 16 fighters & 4 trainers in each]. The production of 16 fighters in IOC has been completed in March, 2019 and the production of 16 fighters in FOC and 8 trainers is underway in HAL. The first aircraft in FOC fl..

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